States making their own immigration laws
Lawmakers growing impatient with Washington.

Dismay over Washington gridlock on immigration has inspired cities and states to pass their own measures, most of which make life harder for undocumented workers and demand that employers, law enforcement officers and even landlords act as the front line.

The city of Hazleton, Pa., last week passed one of the harsher laws, approving $1,000 fines for landlords who provide housing to illegal immigrants and denying business permits to employers who give them jobs. Local governments from California to Idaho to Florida are weighing similar steps. States approved nearly 60 new laws in the last few months, overwhelmingly restrictive or punitive.

One question is whether the local and state laws would stand if Congress overcame the split between the Senate and the House and approved a new federal law. Many would be superseded, officials acknowledge - but they say it's better to pass a local measure that won't last than nothing at all, and right now it's unclear whether Congress will make a deal.

Colorado and Georgia led the way with sweeping laws that aim to require proof of citizenship for services and also target employers who hire illegal immigrants.

Overall, 27 states passed laws toughening rules on education, employment, legal services and identification, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. The 59 new laws that went on the books in this year's legislative sessions were a big increase from the 37 immigration-related laws from the year before.

This year's batch tilted sharply toward cracking down on immigrants, in contrast to earlier years when there was a mix of legislation, some of it loosening rules for obtaining services or education.

Colorado's measure, for instance, could remove as many as 50,000 illegal immigrants in the state from programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, unemployment insurance, energy assistance and aging and adult services, according to GOP Gov. Bill Owens.

Other Republicans, however, said the law went too easy on illegal immigrants, complaining that minors still get benefits.

In 10 states, the majority of the new laws targeted employers as the lure that draws illegal immigrants to their communities. Other legislatures made benefits harder to get, or cracked down on human trafficking, toughened regulations or fines against fake IDs, or made education more expensive for illegals.

Nebraska stood out this year because it went in the opposite direction, when lawmakers overrode Gov. Dave Heineman's veto and provided in-state college tuition for the children of illegal immigrants who went to high school in the state.

In earlier years, one of the arguments for leaving immigration issues alone is that they were a federal matter, not a state or local one. But now the political landscape has changed.

Advocates for immigrants aren't waiting for an answer from Washington, either. They are threatening to sue to stop some of the new laws from taking effect.